Playing the ocarina at high tempo

Learning to play the ocarina at high tempo can be frustrating. This is because learning begins on a conscious level, and the conscious mind is flexible but slow. As you play more, the task of playing the ocarina is automated by your subconscious mind and, as this happens, you will be able to play faster. Consequently, your speed will naturally increase over time, and this can be helped with an effective practice method.

But first, it should be said that instrument design, tuning, and poor player technique can make playing quickly more difficult. The first part of this page discusses these issues, which is important as they are easy to rectify. The second discusses how to practise playing faster.

Technical issues

Minimize your finger movements

A lot of players move their fingers farther than necessary. The farther you move your fingers, the faster you have to move them to keep up, which can hold you back. There is a point, around two centimetres above a hole, where the finger no longer changes the instrument's pitch. It is good practice to lift your fingers no higher than this.

Excessive finger movement

Excessive, uncontrolled finger movement on the ocarina. The fingers are a long way from the hole, and would need to move a large distance to close it again. This is poor technique and makes playing quickly needlessly difficult

Controlled finger movement

A controlled finger movement on the ocarina, the finger is kept close to the hole, so that it only needs to move a small distance to close it again

It is not difficult to train yourself to limit your finger movement. To learn to do so, practise lifting and replacing your fingers slowly in a mirror. Aim to keep them close to the holes. If you practise with one hand at a time, you can use the other hand to block excess movement, shown in the following pictures. After a few days, you'll start to limit your finger movement subconsciously, but mistakes will happen. Any time you notice a finger flying off uncontrolled while playing, make a point to correct it. Stop what you are doing and practise lifting it in a controlled way.

Using the fingers of your other hand to learn to avoid excessive finger movements in the opposite hand. The fingers are placed above, waiting to block excessive movement

Using the fingers of your other hand to learn to avoid excessive finger movements in the opposite hand. The lower fingers are raised, and the opposite hand blocks excessive movement

Do note that it is possible to have your fingers too close to the holes. A finger just above the hole will cause the pitch to be flatter than it should be. It is easy to find this point using a tuner: play a note in the middle of the range; G is a good choice on an alto C. While blowing this note steadily, slowly lower the finger for the note below (e.g. F natural) toward its hole. Take note of when it starts to alter the pitch.

The large distance that fingers have to move to avoid shading is an obstacle to playing the ocarina at speed. The movement of the finger creates a brief pitch slide and, when playing quickly, this can be a non-trivial part of the note's total duration. Fingers have to move extremely quickly to avoid this or your playing can sound muddy.

Additionally, if you're not doing so already, learn to play the ocarina using the 3 point grip. This keeps the right hand fingers close to their holes at all times. It makes leaping between the high and low notes considerably easier.

Play an ocarina with a low air requirement

Ocarinas have a nonlinear response to pressure changes. A small pressure increase on the low end requires a considerably larger increase on the high end to maintain the same pitch. This is visualised in the following chart, which shows 3 different breath curves. Curve A has the lowest starting pressure, C has the highest, and curve B falls in the middle.

How an ocarina's pitch responds to pressure changes over its range. The low notes are much more sensitive to pressure changes, so to create the same change in pitch on the high notes requires a much larger change in blowing pressure

It is easier to play a low pressure ocarina quickly because there is a smaller pressure difference between the low and high notes, as in curve A. Note that playing in a colder environment and blowing up to pitch also makes an ocarina's breath curve steeper since the high notes are less sensitive to pressure changes than the low notes. See 'Playing ocarinas in warm or cold environments'.

Play a 10 hole or a multichamber

As more holes are added to an ocarina, more air is required to maintain sound production. This change is not linear; adding a subhole or two greatly increases the pressure needed to sound the high notes. The pressure difference between the low and high end also grows, as does the nonlinearity in the breath curve. These factors are undesirable when playing quickly, as noted before.

The breath curve of a 10 hole vs a 12 hole ocarina. Blowing pressure must increase towards the high notes, but the total pressure required to sound the high notes will tend to be lower in an ocarina having fewer finger holes

10 and 11 hole ocarinas may be tuned with a flatter breath curve over their sounding range. Multichambers also sidestep this problem, as each chamber produces a smaller part of the total range even with subholes. Because of this, they can be tuned with flatter breath curves.

Subholes impose another issue when playing quickly. Lifting fingers is easier than sliding them due to sliding friction. Consequently, I recommend working on tunes that do not require subholes. Eliminate the low note with folding, or transpose into a higher key.

Do not tongue every note

As the tempo goes up, tonguing every note can hold you back. Even if you can keep up, rapid tonguing may cause other problems: it can sound choppy and may cause intonation issues. When tonguing quickly, the tongue tends to remain close to the roof of the mouth. It may restrict the airflow enough to flatten the ocarina's pitch, especially if your ocarina's air requirement is around the limit of what you can produce.

Instead of tonguing every note, only tongue the notes needed to maintain the phrasing of the music. When you need to separate two notes within a phrase, fingered articulations can be used instead. These respond better at speed as the instrument does not have to stop and start sounding. When you stop the airflow, it takes a certain amount of time for the ocarina to start sounding again.

Pushing yourself to play faster

Human time perception is not absolute. Perceived speed depends on a number of factors including how well you know the tune, your experience with the instrument, and your typical playing tempo. Becoming comfortable with playing at a higher tempo requires that you develop all of the above. To some extent, speed will come as you get better with your instrument. However, I also feel it is important to spend some time practising at higher tempo.

If you play the same thing regularly, you will develop a tempo that you are most comfortable at. Playing faster starts to create a feeling of tension, and you may start to make mistakes. The goal is to find a higher tempo where you can still play mistake free.

This can be practised as follows:

  • Start out at a slow, comfortable speed at which you can play the tune start to finish to a metronome without any serious errors. Using a metronome is critical as it is difficult to intuitively feel small changes in tempo.
  • Once you have found this tempo, bump up the speed 5 to 10 beats per minute. Play through the tune a few times. If you don't feel any tension, bump it up a little more.
  • You will reach a point where you can still hit the notes but you feel a tension while doing so—a niggling feeling that you should back off. Once you find this point, stick with it. If you play repetitions for 5 or 10 minutes the initial tension will start to go away.
  • After you get comfortable playing at this speed, give yourself a rest. There is a phenomenon called the Spacing Effect where practising in short sessions regularly causes you to learn more than practising in a large block.
  • You may find that you can play some parts of your tune faster than others without making mistakes. If this is the case, you may want to isolate the parts where you are tripping up and practise them in isolation. Work on them at a lower speed if needed.

Practising in this way begins to move the task from your conscious mind to your subconscious. As this happens, you will be able to play it faster. Since this transition often happens when you sleep, you may not see immediate results during your practice session. After a few days, you'll notice that you can go faster.